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Zambia:
Military & Transnational Issues

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Zambia Page


Other pages in this profile of Zambia:
Geography, People, Government, Economy, Communications & Transportation,
Military branches
Definition
Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambian Army, Zambian Air Force, National Service (2008)
Military service age and obligation
Definition
18 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service
Definition
males age 16-49: 2,678,668
females age 16-49: 2,567,433 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service
Definition - World rank and map
males age 16-49: 1,329,343
females age 16-49: 1,218,114 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
Definition - World rank and map
1.8% (2005 est.)
Disputes - international
Definition
in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; 42,250 Congolese refugees in Zambia are offered voluntary repatriation in November 2006, most of whom are expected to return in the next two years; Angolan refugees too have been repatriating but 26,450 still remain with 90,000 others from other neighboring states in 2006
Refugees and internally displaced persons
Definition
refugees (country of origin): 42,565 (Angola); 60,874 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 4,100 (Rwanda) (2007)
Trafficking in persons
Definition
current situation: Zambia is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; many Zambian child laborers, particularly those in the agriculture, domestic service, and fishing sectors, are also victims of human trafficking; Zambian women, lured by false employment or marriage offers abroad, are trafficked to South Africa via Zimbabwe and to Europe via Malawi for sexual exploitation; Zambia is a transit point for regional trafficking of women and children, particularly from Angola to Namibia and from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to South Africa for agricultural labor
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Zambia is on the Tier 2 Watch List for failing to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking, particularly in regard to its inability to bring alleged traffickers to justice through prosecutions and convictions; unlike 2006, there were no new prosecutions or convictions of alleged traffickers in 2007; government efforts to protect victims of trafficking remained extremely limited throughout the year (2008)
Illicit drugs
Definition
transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis


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