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Military & Transnational Issues

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Kazakhstan Page

Other pages in this profile of Kazakhstan:
Geography, People, Government, Economy, Communications & Transportation,
Military branches
Ground Forces, Naval Force, Air and Air Defense Forces, Republican Guard
Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; minimum age for volunteers NA (2004)
Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49: 4,176,731
females age 16-49: 4,219,636 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service
Definition - World rank and map
males age 16-49: 2,871,205
females age 16-49: 3,551,032 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
males age 16-49: 145,495
females age 16-49: 140,149 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP
Definition - World rank and map
0.9% (Ministry of Defense expenditures) (FY02)
Disputes - international
Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; field demarcation of the boundaries with Turkmenistan commenced in 2005, and with Uzbekistan in 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get underway with Russia in 2007; demarcation with China was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified with Azerbaijan and Russia in the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 3,700 (Russia); 508 (Afghanistan) (2007)
Illicit drugs
significant illicit cultivation of cannabis for CIS markets, as well as limited cultivation of opium poppy and ephedra (for the drug ephedrine); limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; significant consumer of opiates

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