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Pakistan:
Government

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Country name
Definition
conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government type
Definition
federal republic
Capital
Definition
name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions
Definition
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas
Independence
Definition
14 August 1947 (from British India)
National holiday
Definition
Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Constitution
Definition
12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored on 15 December 2007
Legal system
Definition
based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage
Definition
18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch
Definition
chief of state: President Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)
note: following an October 1999 military coup, General Pervez MUSHARRAF suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; in May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court validated the 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years following the coup; in June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself president, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; an April 2002 referendum extended MUSHARRAF's presidency by five years; on 6 October 2007, MUSHARRAF was reelected President of Pakistan, although the Supreme Court was reviewing a challenge to his eligibility to serve another term; MUSHARRAF declared emergency rule from 3 November to 15 December, during which time he replaced several Supreme Court Justices; the reconstituted court upheld his presidency on 22 November 2007
head of government: Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the President upon the advice of the prime minister
elections: the president is elected by secret ballot (1,170 votes total) through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2012); the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008
election results: MUSHARRAF reelected; MUSHARRAF 671 votes; Wajihuddin AHMED 8 votes; 6 votes invalid; GILANI elected prime minister GILANI 264 votes; Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions
Legislative branch
Definition
bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in March 2006 (next to be held in March 2009); National Assembly - last held 18 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML 38, MMA 18, PPPP 10, MQM 6, PML-N 4, PKMAP 3, ANP 2, PPP-S 2, BNP-A 1, BNP-M 1, JWP 1, NA 1, PML-F 1, independents 12; National Assembly - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PPPP 121, PML-N 91, PML 54, MQM 25, ANP 13, MMA 6, PML-F 5, BNP-A 1, NPP 1, PPP-S 1, independents 18; note - as a result of the 27 June 2008 by-election, PML-N gained 3 seats and PPPP gained 2 seats)
Judicial branch
Definition
Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Political parties and leaders
Definition
Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Fazlur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); National Peoples Party or NPP; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz Sharif or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Peoples Party-SHERPAO or PPP-S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders
Definition
other: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
International organization participation
Definition
ADB, ARF, C (reinstated 2004), CP, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US
Definition
chief of mission: Ambassador Husain HAQQANI
chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (California)
Diplomatic representation from the US
Definition
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
consulate(s) general: Karachi
consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
Flag description
Definition
green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam


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