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Uzbekistan:
Geography

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Background
Definition
Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
Location
Definition
Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Geographic coordinates
Definition
41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references
Definition
Asia
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline
Definition
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims
Definition
none (doubly landlocked)
Climate
Definition
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain
Definition
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources
Definition
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 10.51%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 88.73% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
42,810 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
72.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 58.34 cu km/yr (5%/2%/93%)
per capita: 2,194 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
NA
Environment - current issues
Definition
shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world


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