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Tanzania:
Geography

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Background
Definition
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
Location
Definition
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates
Definition
6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map references
Definition
Africa
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 945,087 sq km
land: 886,037 sq km
water: 59,050 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 3,861 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Coastline
Definition
1,424 km
Maritime claims
Definition
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate
Definition
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain
Definition
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
Natural resources
Definition
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 4.23%
permanent crops: 1.16%
other: 94.61% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
1,840 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
91 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 5.18 cu km/yr (10%/0%/89%)
per capita: 135 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
Environment - current issues
Definition
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest


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