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Togo:
Geography

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Background
Definition
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and fire from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.
Location
Definition
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates
Definition
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references
Definition
Africa
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline
Definition
56 km
Maritime claims
Definition
territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate
Definition
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain
Definition
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources
Definition
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
70 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
14.7 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)
per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues
Definition
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna


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