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Thailand:
Geography

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Background
Definition
A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been taken over by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to a constitutional monarchy. In alliance with Japan during World War II, Thailand became a US ally following the conflict. Thailand is currently facing separatist violence in its southern ethnic Malay-Muslim provinces.
Location
Definition
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma
Geographic coordinates
Definition
15 00 N, 100 00 E
Map references
Definition
Southeast Asia
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 514,000 sq km
land: 511,770 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 4,863 km
border countries: Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km
Coastline
Definition
3,219 km
Maritime claims
Definition
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
Definition
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
Terrain
Definition
central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Doi Inthanon 2,576 m
Natural resources
Definition
tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 27.54%
permanent crops: 6.93%
other: 65.53% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
49,860 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
409.9 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 82.75 cu km/yr (2%/2%/95%)
per capita: 1,288 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
Environment - current issues
Definition
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note
Definition
controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore


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