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Nigeria:
Geography

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Nigeria Page


Background
Definition
British influence and control over what would become Nigeria grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.
Location
Definition
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates
Definition
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references
Definition
Africa
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline
Definition
853 km
Maritime claims
Definition
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
Definition
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain
Definition
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources
Definition
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 33.02%
permanent crops: 3.14%
other: 63.84% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
2,820 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
286.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 8.01 cu km/yr (21%/10%/69%)
per capita: 61 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issues
Definition
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea


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