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Mali:
Geography

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Background
Definition
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup - led by the current president Amadou TOURE - enabling Mali's emergence as one of the strongest democracies on the continent. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, KONARE stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was subsequently elected to a second term in 2007. The elections were widely judged to be free and fair.
Location
Definition
Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates
Definition
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references
Definition
Africa
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline
Definition
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
Definition
none (landlocked)
Climate
Definition
subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain
Definition
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources
Definition
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 3.76%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 96.21% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
2,360 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
100 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
per capita: 484 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues
Definition
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan


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