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Macedonia:
Geography

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Background
Definition
Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. Fully implementating the Framework Agreement and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made on both fronts over the past several years.
Location
Definition
Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates
Definition
41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references
Definition
Europe
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Kosovo 159 km, Serbia 62 km
Coastline
Definition
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
Definition
none (landlocked)
Climate
Definition
warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain
Definition
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resources
Definition
low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
550 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
6.4 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 2.27
per capita: 1,118 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
high seismic risks
Environment - current issues
Definition
air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe


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