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Montenegro:
Geography

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Background
Definition
The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
Location
Definition
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates
Definition
42 30 N, 19 18 E
Map references
Definition
Europe
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 14,026 sq km
land: 13,812 sq km
water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Kosovo 79 km, Serbia 124 km
Coastline
Definition
293.5 km
Maritime claims
Definition
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Climate
Definition
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain
Definition
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources
Definition
bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 13.7%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 85.3%
Irrigated land
Definition
NA
Natural hazards
Definition
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues
Definition
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution
Geography - note
Definition
strategic location along the Adriatic coast


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