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Luxembourg:
Geography

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Background
Definition
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
Location
Definition
Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates
Definition
49 45 N, 6 10 E
Map references
Definition
Europe
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline
Definition
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
Definition
none (landlocked)
Climate
Definition
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain
Definition
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Natural resources
Definition
iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 27.42%
permanent crops: 0.69%
other: 71.89% (includes Belgium) (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
NA
Total renewable water resources
Definition
1.6 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 0.06 cu km/yr (42%/45%/13%)
per capita: 121 cu m/yr (1999)
Natural hazards
Definition
NA
Environment - current issues
Definition
air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note
Definition
landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world


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