header HomePlacesMapsMap Products & ServicesHotels & TravelDestination GuidesWeb DirectoryContact

Indonesia:
Geography

Flag of Indonesia
Click to enlarge

Indonesia Page


Background
Definition
The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing financial sector reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist movement in Papua.
Location
Definition
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates
Definition
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references
Definition
Southeast Asia
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Coastline
Definition
54,716 km
Maritime claims
Definition
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate
Definition
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain
Definition
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources
Definition
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
45,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
2,838 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Environment - current issues
Definition
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean


Google
 
Web sitesatlas.com