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Hungary:
Geography

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Background
Definition
Hungary became a Christian kingdom in A.D. 1000 and for many centuries served as a bulwark against Ottoman Turkish expansion in Europe. The kingdom eventually became part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.
Location
Definition
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates
Definition
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references
Definition
Europe
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline
Definition
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
Definition
none (landlocked)
Climate
Definition
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain
Definition
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources
Definition
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 49.58%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 48.36% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
2,300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
120 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 21.03 cu km/yr (9%/59%/32%)
per capita: 2,082 cu m/yr (2001)
Environment - current issues
Definition
the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions


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