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Croatia:
Geography

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Croatia Page


Background
Definition
The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.
Location
Definition
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates
Definition
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Map references
Definition
Europe
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 56,542 sq km
land: 56,414 sq km
water: 128 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 670 km
Coastline
Definition
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims
Definition
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
Definition
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain
Definition
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m
Natural resources
Definition
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 25.82%
permanent crops: 2.19%
other: 71.99% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
110 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
105.5 cu km (1998)
Natural hazards
Definition
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues
Definition
air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note
Definition
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks


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