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Estonia:
Geography

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Estonia Page


Background
Definition
After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Location
Definition
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates
Definition
59 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references
Definition
Europe
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Coastline
Definition
3,794 km
Maritime claims
Definition
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Climate
Definition
maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Terrain
Definition
marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Natural resources
Definition
oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 12.05%
permanent crops: 0.35%
other: 87.6% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
40 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
21.1 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 1.41 cu km/yr (56%/39%/5%)
per capita: 1,060 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards
Definition
sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Environment - current issues
Definition
air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one-20th the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
Definition
the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands


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