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Burundi:
Geography

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Burundi Page


Background
Definition
Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. More than 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defense force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The new government, led by President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, signed a South African brokered ceasefire with the country's last rebel group in September of 2006 but still faces many challenges.
Location
Definition
Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates
Definition
3 30 S, 30 00 E
Map references
Definition
Africa
Area
Definition - World rank and map
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,650 sq km
water: 2,180 sq km
Area - comparative
Definition
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries
Definition
total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
Coastline
Definition
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims
Definition
none (landlocked)
Climate
Definition
equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Terrain
Definition
hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation extremes
Definition
lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Heha 2,670 m
Natural resources
Definition
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
Land use
Definition - World rank and map
arable land: 35.57%
permanent crops: 13.12%
other: 51.31% (2005)
Irrigated land
Definition
210 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources
Definition
3.6 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
Definition
total: 0.29 cu km/yr (17%/6%/77%)
per capita: 38 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards
Definition
flooding, landslides, drought
Environment - current issues
Definition
soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements
Definition
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note
Definition
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile


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