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Tajikistan:
Economy

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Economy - overview
Definition
Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, but this sector is burdened with debt and an obsolete infrastructure. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. While Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in abject poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004, but dropped to 8% in 2005, 7% in 2006, and 7.8% in 2007. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, widespread unemployment, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises could increase productivity. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Tajikistan ranks third in the world in terms of water resources per head, but suffers winter power shortages due to poor management of water levels in rivers and reservoirs. Completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam - built with Russian investment - and the Sangtuda II and Rogun dams will add substantially to electricity output. If finished according to Tajik plans, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. Tajikistan has also received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and an electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
GDP (purchasing power parity)
Definition - World rank and map
$11.82 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate)
Definition
$3.712 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate
Definition - World rank and map
7.8% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita
Definition - World rank and map
$1,800 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector
Definition
agriculture: 23.4%
industry: 30.4%
services: 46.1% (2007 est.)
Labor force
Definition
2.1 million (2007)
Labor force - by occupation
Definition
agriculture: 67.2%
industry: 7.5%
services: 25.3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate
Definition - World rank and map
2.4% official rate; actual unemployment is higher (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line
Definition
60% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
Definition
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index
Definition - World rank and map
32.6 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
Definition - World rank and map
13.2% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed)
Definition - World rank and map
13.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget
Definition
revenues: $700 million
expenditures: $673 million (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products
Definition
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries
Definition
aluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate
Definition - World rank and map
9% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production
Definition - World rank and map
17.4 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - consumption
Definition - World rank and map
17.9 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - consumption per capita
Definition - World rank and map
2,482.1 kWh (2007)
Electricity - exports
Definition
4.259 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - imports
Definition
4.36 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Oil - production
Definition - World rank and map
282.1 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption
Definition - World rank and map
8,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption per 1,000 people
Definition - World rank and map
1.1 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - exports
Definition - World rank and map
0 bbl/day (2007)
Oil - imports
Definition - World rank and map
7,600 bbl/day (2007)
Oil - proved reserves
Definition - World rank and map
12 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production
Definition - World rank and map
39.32 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption
Definition - World rank and map
689 million cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption per capita
Definition - World rank and map
96 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports
Definition - World rank and map
0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports
Definition - World rank and map
650 million cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves
Definition - World rank and map
5.432 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance
Definition - World rank and map
-$351 million (2007 est.)
Exports
Definition - World rank and map
$1.625 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities
Definition
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners
Definition
Norway 17%, Turkey 12.9%, Italy 9.9%, Iran 9.8%, Russia 8.7%, Uzbekistan 8.3%, Germany 4.6% (2006)
Imports
Definition - World rank and map
$2.736 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities
Definition
electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners
Definition
Russia 21.2%, China 20.2%, Kazakhstan 9.5%, Uzbekistan 8.9%, Azerbaijan 7%, Turkey 5.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
Definition - World rank and map
$235 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external
Definition - World rank and map
$1.56 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares
Definition
$NA
Economic aid - recipient
Definition
$241.4 million from US (2005)
Currency (code)
Definition
somoni (TJS)
Exchange rates
Definition
Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 3.4418 (2007), 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004), 3.0614 (2003)
Fiscal year
Definition
calendar year


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